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Biology of Stress in Fish (Vol. 35 - 2016)

Schreck, C.B. et al., Biology of Stress in Fish, Fish Physiology Vol. 35, Academic Press, 2016

 

Inhalt:

 

CONTRIBUTORS ix
PREFACE xi

1. The Concept of Stress in Fish
1. Introduction 2
 
2. Variation in the Neuroendocrine Stress Response
1. Introduction 35
2. Ontogeny of the Teleost Stress Response 37
3. Neuronal Substrate for Stress and Variation in Stress Responses 40
4. Divergent Stress Coping Styles, Animal Personalities, and Behavioral Syndromes 42
5. Agonistic Interactions: Stress and Aggression 51
6. Nutritional Factors Affecting Stress Responses 54
7. Directions for Future Research 59
 
3. The Endocrinology of the Stress Response in Fish
1. Introduction 76
2. Stress and the Brain: The (Neuro-)Endocrine Hypothalamus 81
3. Stress and the Pituitary Gland 92
4. Stress and the Head Kidney 95
5. Synthesis and Perspective 98
 
4. The Molecular Stress Response
1. Introduction 114
2. Molecular Regulation of the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Interrenal (HPI) Axis 116
3. Genomic Cortisol Signaling 125
4. Genomic Effects of Cortisol 129
5. Significance of Molecular Responses 144
6. Approaches to Study Molecular Responses to Stress 145
7. Concluding Remarks and the Unknowns 149
 
5. Stress and Growth
1. Introduction 168
2. A Conceptual Framework for Growth 169
3. Stress Effect on Energy Available for Growth 178
4. Stress Effects on Promoters of Muscle Formation 185
5. Conclusion and Knowledge Gaps 190
 
6. Homeostatic Responses to Osmotic Stress
1. Introduction 208
2. Responses to Hyperosmotic Stress 215
3. Responses to Hypoosmotic Stress 218
4. Stress Sensing to Homeostasis 224
5. Energy Metabolism in Response to Osmotic Stress 231
6. Conclusions and Perspectives 237
 
7. The Stress and Stress Mitigation Effects of Exercise: Cardiovascular, Metabolic, and Skeletal Muscle Adjustments
1. Introduction 252
2. Physiological Demands of Swimming Exercise and the Stress Continuum 254
3. Physiological Adaptations to Swimming and Relevance to Stress 269
 
8. Reproduction and Development
1. Introduction 296
2. Regulation of Reproduction 297
3. Effects of Stress on Reproduction 301
4. Mechanisms of Stress Action 312
5. Stress Effects on Reproduction in Natural Environments 319
6. Future Directions 321
 
9. Cognition, Learning, and Behavior
1. How Stress Can Affect Behavior, and Vice Versa 334
2. Optimality, Preferences, and Decision-Making 335
3. Salmon as Model Species 342
4. Learning in Relation to Stress in Fishes 343
5. Some Critical Knowledge Gaps 351
 
10. Stress and Disease Resistance: Immune System and Immunoendocrine Interactions
1. Introduction 366
2. Effects of Stressors on the Immune Response 367
3. Organization of the Immune Response Following Stress: The Neuroimmunoendocrine Connection and the Role of the Head Kidney 375
4. Effects of Hormones on the Immune System 376
5. Environmental Stressors and Fish Immunity 386
6. Future Directions 389
 
11. Stress Indicators in Fish
1. Why Do We Measure Stress? 406
2. Quantifying Stress 407
3. Specific Measures of Fish Stress 409
4. Considerations for Measuring and Interpreting Stress 433
5. From Individual Indicators to Ecosystem Health 441
6. Stress Indicators of the Future 443
7. Conclusion 446
 
12. Stress Management and Welfare
1. Introduction 464
2. Managing Stress in Fish 475
3. The Impact of Stress on Fish Welfare 494
4. Conclusions and Future Directions 521
 
13. Stress in Fish as Model Organisms
1. Introduction 542
2. Indicators of Stress in Laboratory Fish 544
3. Factors Impacting Stress in Laboratory Fish Handling 546
4. Housing 547
5. Feeding and Stress 552
6. Sex and Hierarchies 552
7. Sex Determination and Reversal 553
8. Stress, Cortisol, and Reproduction 553
9. Anesthetics 554
10. Underlying Diseases 555
11. Consistency 556
12. Conclusion and Key Unknowns 557

INDEX 565
OTHER VOLUMES IN THE FISH PHYSIOLOGY SERIES 587

 

 



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