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Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention (2016)

Raatz, S.K. & Bibus, D.M., Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention, Academic Press/Elsevier, 2016




List of Contributors (ix)
Preface (xi)
Acknowledgment (xiii)




01. Fish Intake in the United States

Imports and Production (3)
Individual Intake (4)
Barriers to Seafood Consumption (11)
Conclusion (11)
References (12)

02. Fish and Fish Oil in the Mediterranean Diets

Introduction (15)
The Mediterranean Diet (15)
Mediterranean Diet and Omega-3 Fatty Acids (19)
Conclusions (22)
References (23)

03. Recommended Intake of Fish and Fish Oils Worldwide

Introduction (27)
Intake Recommendations (28)
Dietary Sources (30)
Supplemental Sources (34)
Specific Life Stages and Population Groups (36)
Sustainability (41)
Conclusion (42)
References (43)

04. Pregnant Women and Consumption of Fish: Where are We?

The Fish Paradox Unraveled: Pregnant Women Should Eat More Fish for Optimal Brain Development in their Children (49)
Omega-3 DHA and Neurocognitive Development (49)
Requirements for DHA During Pregnancy to Support CNS Development (53)
References (58)

05. Bioavailability of Lipids in Fish and Fish Oils

Introduction: What is Bioavailability? (61)
From Fish Lipids to Fish Foods and Other Fish Oil Delivery Systems (61)
Digestion and Bioaccessibility of Fish Lipids (65)
Bioavailability of Fish Lipids According to Different Molecular and Supramolecular Structures and the Food Product (66)
Conclusion and Future Prospects (70)
References (70)

06. Fish Oils in Human Nutrition: History and Current Status

Introduction (75)
Market (75)
Claims (78)
Conclusion (83)
References (83)




07. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Counterbalance Actions of Omega-6 Fatty Acids

Balancing Our Options (87)
Two Tissue Biomarkers Predict Health Risk Differently (87)
Two Essential Nutrients Compete for a Place in Life (90)
Two Families of Eicosanoids have Different Impacts (93)
Two Choices: Prevent the Cause or Treat Signs and Symptoms (96)
Two Origins of Food: Land and Sea (97)
References (98)

08. Fish Consumption During Pregnancy and Anthropometric Measures at Birth

Introduction (101)
Fish Consumption and Birth Outcomes: Results from Observational Studies (102)
Fish Consumption During Pregnancy: A Glimpse at Infant Neurodevelopment (105)
Inconsistencies of Epidemiological Findings on Birth Outcomes (105)
Fish Consumption and Birth Outcomes: Planning an Epidemiologic Study (106)
Implications for Pregnant Women (107)
References (110)

09. Fish Oil and The Retinopathy of Prematurity

Retinopathy of Prematurity (115)
Fish Oil (116)
Fish Oil and Retinopathy of Prematurity (116)
References (117)

10. Fish Oil for Physical Performance in Athletes

Introduction (119)
Dietary Fish Oil: Provision of Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (119)
Dietary Fish Oil and Performance: A Reemerging Theme (120)
Setting a Framework Around “Athletes” (120)
Dietary Fish Oil and its Physiological Contribution to Physical Performance (121)
Fish Oil and Oxygen Modulation (121)
Blood Flow (121)
Cardiac Function (122)
Oxygen Efficiency (123)
Oxygen Modulation and Physical Performance (123)
Maximal Oxygen Consumption (123)
Endurance and Exercise Performance (124)
Fish Oil and Inflammation, Immune, and Oxidative Stress (124)
Inflammation and Immune Modulation (125)
Skeletal Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress (126)
Inflammation, Reactive Oxygen Stress, and Physical Performance (127)
EPA versus DHA: Does it Matter and How Much is Enough? (128)
Future Focus: Uncovering the Potential Effects of Dietary Fish Oil on Performance (129)
Fish Oil and Exercise Intolerance: An Insight to Study Design (129)
Nutritional Preconditioning in Hypoxic Environments (129)
Fish Oil Supporting Supra-Maximal Exercise (130)
Maintaining Skeletal Muscle Mass (131)
Long-Term Monitoring and Optimization of LC n–3 PUFA in Athletes (131)
Conclusions (131)
References (132)

11. Fish Intake and Strength in the Elderly

Aging (137)
Fish Oil (138)
Molecular Effects of n–3 PUFA (140)
References (141)

12. Fish and Fish Oil for the Aging Brain

Introduction (143)
Vitamin A (144)
Vitamin D (146)
Vitamin E (148)
Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) (149)
The Aging Brain, Myelin Maintenance, and Nutrients from Fish (151)
Summary and Conclusions (153)
References (153)





13. Farmed Fish: A Valuable Source of Lipid Based Nutrients

Fish: A Source of Fat Soluble Nutrients (161)
Determinants of LCn3 Content (162)
LCn3 from Aquaculture to Human Health (163)
Other Lipid Soluble Nutrients (164)
Conclusions (165)
References (165)

14. Fish and Fish Oil and the Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome (169)
Fish and Fish Oil and Metabolic Syndrome (170)
Conclusion (174)
References (174)

15. Dietary and Supplemental Long-Chain N3 Fatty Acids and Incident Type 2 Diabetes

Introduction (179)
Intervention Studies (179)
Observational Studies (179)
Discussion (183)
References (184)

16. Seafood Consumption and Fasting Leptin and Ghrelin in Overweight and Obese

Role and Production of Leptin and Ghrelin (185)
Conditions Affecting Blood Levels of Leptin and Ghrelin (185)
Fasting Leptin and Ghrelin Levels in Overweight and Obese Participants After Different Types of Seafood Diets and Weight Loss (186)
Additional Aspects (188)
Conclusion (189)
References (189)

17. Fish/Fish Oil Intake and Inflammatory Biomarkers, Endothelial Function

Overview (193)
Summary (197)
References (197)

18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

Introduction (199)
Randomized Trials (199)
Epidemiology (202)
Mechanisms of Action of n–3 Fatty Acids (202)
Conclusion (203)
References (203)

19. Salmon and Vascular Risk in Young Healthy Subjects

Fish and Seafood in Health and Human Nutrition (207)
Salmon as Food (207)
Markers of Vascular Risk (208)
Experimental Studies: Salmon and Vascular Risk Factors (208)
Blood Lipids (208)
Blood Pressure (209)
Intercellular Adhesion Molecules (ICAM VCAM) (210)
Inflammation Markers (211)
Other Vascular Risk Factors (211)
Increasing Omega-3 3 PUFA Concentrations in Salmon (212)
Health Risks of Consuming Oil-Rich Fish (212)
Concluding Remarks (212)
References (213)

20. Fish and Fish Oil for Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

Introduction (217)
Etiology (218)
Dyslipidemia (218)
Diabetic Complications (218)
Fish Oil and Diabetes, Preclinical Models (219)
Fish Oil and Diabetes, Ecological Evidence (219)
Prospective Cohort Studies on Fish Oil, Long Chain n–3 Fatty Acids and Diabetes Risk (220)
Randomized, Controlled Trials with Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetics (221)
Effects of Fish and Fish Oil on Mortality in Subjects with T2DM (223)
Effect of Fish and Fish Oil on Cardiovascular Disease in Subjects with Diabetes (224)
Effects of Fish and Fish Oil on Endothelial Function in Diabetics (226)
Effect of Fish and Fish Oil on Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetes (227)
Conclusion (227)
References (227)

21. Fish Consumption and Heart Rate Variability

Introduction (231)
Heart Rate Variability (231)
HRV as an Index of Health (232)
Measuring Heart Rate Variability (233)
Describing Heart Rate Variability (233)
Changes in HRV Parameters Induced by Fish Consumption and Possible Mechanisms Involved (234
Implications for Clinical Practice, Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (236)
Summary and Concluding Comments (236)
References (236)

22. Fish and Fish Oil and Lipoprotein Particle Number and Size

Introduction (239)
Lipoprotein Particles (239)
Measurements of Lipoprotein Particle Size and Subclasses( 240)
Diet and Lipoprotein Particle Number and Size (240)
Effect of Fish Intake on Lipoprotein Particles (240)
Fish Oils and Lipoprotein Particle Number and Size (242)
Postprandial Lipids (245)
Discussion and Conclusions (245)
References (246)

23. Fish, Fish Oil, and Liver Cancer

Introduction (249)
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) (249)
Fish and Fish Oil (253)
Effects of Fish Oil on HCC (254)
Summary and Future Prospective Studies (256)
References (257)

24. Brain, Fish Oil-Enriched Diet, and Sphingolipids

Introduction (263)
Sphingolipid Turnover and Brain Pathology (264)
Improvement of Brain Sphingolipid Metabolism and Functions by n–3 Fatty Acids of the Fish Oil (265)
Conclusion (268)
References (269)

25. Liver Disease and Parenteral Fish Oil

Introduction (273)
Parenteral Nutrition and the Importance of Fat Emulsions (273)
Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease (274)
The Role of Parenteral Soybean Oil Emulsions in the Pathogenesis of PNALD (275)
Fish Oil Monotherapy in PNALD (275)
Addition of FOLE to SOLE to Treat PNALD (278)
Combination Emulsions Containing Fish Oil in the Management of PNALD (278)
Conclusion (279)
References (279)

26. Fish Oil Supplementation and Cancer Cachexia

Clinical Studies (284)
Animal Studies (286)
Conclusion (286)
References (287)

27. Utilization of Fish Oil for the Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

Introduction (291)
Guidelines and Protocols (299)
References (302)

28. Dietary Fish Oil Protects Against Gentamicin, Cisplatin, Uranyl Nitrate, and Nitric Oxide Donor/Metabolite-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rat Kidney

Introduction (305)
Protective Effect of Dietary Fish Oil (FO) on Gentamicin (GM), Cisplatin (CP) and Uranyl Nitrate (UN) Induced Nephrotoxicity (307)
Summary and Conclusion (314)
References (316)




29. Seafood Proteins and Human Health

Introduction (323)
Seafood Protein (323)
Nutritional Value of Seafood Proteins in Human Health (324)
Seafood Processing by-Products as a Source of Muscle Proteins (326)
Conclusion (330)
References (330)

30. Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil

Introduction to Krill Oil (333)
Metabolic Health Effects of Krill Oil (333)
References (339)

31. Risks and Possible Health Effects of Raw Fish Intake

Background (341)
Health Effects of Raw Fish Intake (342)
Health Risks of Raw Fish Intake (344)
Conclusions (350)
References (350)


Index (355)





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