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Ionic Regulation in Animals (1997)

Hazon, N. u.a. (Eds.), Ionic Regulation in Animals: A Tribute to Professor W.T.W. Potts, Springer, 1997

 

Inhalt:

 

Chapter 1 - The Ecophysiology of Osmoregulation in Crustacea
 
1.1 Introduction (1)
1.2 Steady-state strategies (2)
1.3 The development of osmoregulatory capacity (4)
1.4 Brood pouches and osmoregulation (7)
1.5 Environmental effects on crustacean osmoregulation (9)
1.5.1 Effects of external [ion] or salinity (10)
1.5.2 Effects of water pH change on osmoregulation (12)
1.5.3 Effects of ammonia and nitrate (13)
1.5.4 Other factors (16)
1.6 Intraspecific difference in osmoregulation (17)
1.7 Conclusions (20)

References (21)

 

Chapter 2 - Ambient ions and the voltage across crayfish gills
 
2.1 Introduction (26)
2.2 Experimental Results (26)
2.2.1 Tap water medium and Amiloride (26)
2.2.2 The effect of Ca2+ (27)
2.2.3 The effect of Na+ (28)
2.2.4 The effect of Cl- (29)
2.3 Discussion (30)
2.3.1 The TEP and ambient ion (30)
2.3.2 Implication for ion transport systems (30)

References (31)
 
 
Chapter 3 - Regulating the micro-environment of ion transporting epithelia: A comparative approach

3.1 Introduction (33)
3.2 Water movements across epithelia (34)
3.3 Secretion by goblet cells (34)
3.4 Exocytosis, swelling and dispersal of mucus (39)

References (44)
 
 
Chapter 4 - Osmotic and Ionic Osmoregulation in Cyclostomes

4.1 Introduction (50)
4.2 Hagfish (50)
4.2.1 Volume Regulation (51)
4.3 Lamprey (51)
4.3.1 Osmoregulation in lampreys (52)
4.3.2 The lamprey kidney (53)
4.3.3 Materials and Methods (55)
4.3.4 Freshwater Osmoregulation (56)
4.3.5 Marine Osmoregulation (57)
4.3.6 Renal function (60)
4.3.7 Drinking (61)
4.3.8 Loss of Marine Osmoregulatory Ability after Freshwater Entry (62)
4.4 Control Mechanisms (63)
4.5 Conclusions (64)
4.6 Acknowledgements (65)
 
References (65) 
 
 
Chapter 5 - Ion and Water Balance in Elasmobranch Fish

5.1 Introduction (70)
5.2 Gills (71)
5.2.1 Hormonal control (72)
5.3 Kidney (72)
5.3.1 Hormonal control (74)
5.4 Gut (75)
5.5 Rectal gland (78)
5.6 Freshwater and Euryhaline Elasmobranchs (80)
5.7 Acknowledgements (80)

References (81)
 
 
Chapter 6 - Gill Chloride Cells Activation by Plasma Osmolarity

6.1 Introduction and Background (87)
6.2 The importance of osmolarity (92)
6.2.1 Changes in plasma osmolarity during the transition to high salinity (92)
6.2.2 Effect of the addition of 50 mOsm of mannitol on the opercular epithelium (92)
6.2.3 Dose response curves for osmolarity versus chloride current and an effect of Ca2+ concentration (94)
6.2.4 Blocking of 2Cl, Na, K cotransporter eliminates the response to mannitol (96)
6.2.5 Presence of the Na+/H+ exchanger and the consequences of its inhibition on the response of mannitol (96)
6.2.6 Presence of the Na+/HCO-3 exchanger and its lack of participation in the hypertonic response (98)
6.2.7 Blocking Cl- channels with DPC (100)
6.2.8 Quantitative microscopy of chloride cells, an imaging analysis (101)
6.2.9 Effects of hypotonic solutions on the chloride current (102)
6.3 Conclusion (103)

References (103)
 
 
Chapter 7 - The use of Modern Microscopical Techniques for the Study of Fish Gill

7.1 Introduction (105)
7.2 Quantification of chloride cells (107)
7.2.1 Chloride cell subtypes (107)
7.2.2 Techniques for characterisation and quantification of chloride cells (108)
7.2.3 Development of functional branchial chloride cells in larvae and juveniles (109)
7.2.4 Chloride cell density in adult fish adapted to freshwater or seawater (111)
7.3 Branchial ion transport in freshwater fish (113)
7.3.1 X-ray microanalysis (XRMA) (113)
7.3.2 Intracellular elemental levels of branchial epithelial cells (114)
7.3.3 Cellular location of Na+ and Cl- uptake (115)
7.3.4 Control and mechanisms of branchial ion transport (116)
7.4 Perspectives (118)

References (119)
 
 
Chapter 8 - Transport and Housekeeping of calcium in Fish Gills

8.1 Introduction (125)
8.2 Overcapacity of transporters; Ca2+ transport in stanniectomized eels (128)
8.3 Involvement of carriers in transepithelial Ca2+ transport (129)
8.3.1 Prolactin and Ca2+ transport in tilapia (129)
8.3.2 Cadmium and Ca2+ transport in trout and tilapia (129)
8.3.3 Na+/Ca2+-exchanger and transepithelial transport (130)
8.4 Housekeeping (131)

References (132)
 
 
Chapter 9 - Drinking in marine, euryhaline and freshwater teleost fish

9.1 Introduction (135)
9.2 The renin-angiotensin system and drinking in teleost fish (137)
9.3 Drinking in freshwater and the role of the RAS (137)
9.4 Drinking in seawater (139)
9.5 Drinking in larvae (141)
9.6 Absorption of water and salts in marine fish (142)
9.7 Effect of cortisol on drinking (142)
9.8 Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on drinking (143)
9.9 Effect of temperature on drinking (144)

References (144)
 
 
Chapter 10 - Teleost Renal Function: Regulation by Arginine Vasotocin and by Angiotensins

10.1 Introduction (150)
10.2 Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (150)
10.3 Arginine vasotocin (AVT) (154)

References (163)
 

Chapter 11 - Arginine Vasotocin (AVT) Controls Renal Sodium and Water Excretion in Birds through Interaction with a new ADH Receptor Subtype

11.1 Body fluid homeostasis (165)
11.2 The antidiuretic hormone AVT (167)
11.3 AVT-induced antidiuresis and antinatriuresis (169)
11.4 The renal A VT/A VP receptor in birds (173)
11.5 Conclusions (179)

References (180)
 

Chapter 12 - Intracellular signalling in salt-secreting cells - Recent Advances in the Avian Nasal Gland Model

12.1 Introduction (184)
12.2 Mechanism of secretion (185)
12.3 Intracellular calcium signalling (186)
12.4 Activation of secretion by intracellular calcium (188)
12.5 Activation of secretion by intracellular cyclic AMP (191)
12.6 Interactions between calcium and cyclic AMP signals (193)
12.7 Conclusions (196)

References (197)
 

Index (201) 
 


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