FIBERI - Fisch(erei) Beratung Ritter 2018




Thema
Menü

FIBERI - Fisch(erei) Beratung Ritter 2018

Alle nicht-pflichtigen Inhalte dieser Internet-Präsenz sind unverbindlich und ohne Gewähr!  (weitere INFO!)

Biology of Fishes (Bone & Moore, 2008)

 

Quentin Bone & Richard H. Moore
Biology of Fishes
Taylor & Francis, 3rd. Ed., 2008

 

 

Ein sehr umfangreiches Grundlagenwerk!

 

 

 

INHALT:

 

 

Preface xvii
 
Chapter 1 - The Diversity of Fishes
 
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Fish Classification 5
Cladistics 8
Gene and genome duplication 10
Homeobox diversity 11
1.3 Teleost Classification 11
1.4 Basic Structural Features of Fishes 13
Body shape, scales, and fins 13
Internal features 16
1.5 Distribution and Morphology 18
Myxinoids 18
Lampreys 19
1.6 Elasmobranchiomorpha 21
Sarcopterygii 25
1.7 Actinopterygii 26
Chondrostei 26
Holostei 28
Teleostei 29

Envoi 30
References 30
 
 
Chapter 2 - Fishes and their Habitats
 
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 Biogeography 35
2.3 Marine Habitats 37
The open ocean 37
Shallow seas and coastal regions 44
2.4 Freshwater Fishes 52
Diversity of freshwater fishes 52
Lentic systems 54
Lotic systems 54
2.5 Ostariophysan Success 55
2.6 The Variety and Origin of Some Freshwater Fish Faunas 56
2.7 Lakes and Species Flocks 57

Envoi 58
References 58
 
 
Chapter 3 - Swimming
 
3.1 The Problem of Analysis 61
3.2 The Myotomal Muscles 64
Myotomal structure 64
Myosepta 68
Muscle fibers 70
Origin of separate motor systems 73
Operation of slow and fast fibers 74
3.3 Swimming Speeds 77
Cruising speed and slow muscle 77
Sustained swimming 77
Maximum speeds of fishes 78
Maximum and sustained speeds are not everything 79
Not so simple: overlap of the two fiber systems 79
The development of the slow and fast system in teleosts 80
3.4 Warm Red Muscle 81
3.5 The Generation of Thrust 84
Caudal fin oscillations 84
Circulation, lift, and thrust 85
Body waves, and bulk momentum thrust generation 87
3.6 Drag 88
Pressure drag 89
Vortex, induced, or lift (thrust) associated drag and circulation 89
Skin friction drag, boundary layers, and Reynolds number 91
3.7 Mechanisms for Reducing Skin Friction Drag 93
Reduction of wetted area 93
Reduction of lateral movements 93
Boundary layer control mechanisms 93
Mucus injection to the boundary layer 94
Vortex generators, and fluid injection 94
Drag-reducing behaviors? 95
3.8 Efficiency 96

Envoi 97
References 97
 
 
Chapter 4 - Buoyancy
 
4.1 Dynamic Lift 101
4.2 Static Lift 101
4.3 Lipid as a Source of Static Lift 103
Squalene 105
Wax esters 108
Insufficient static lift for neutral buoyancy 109
4.4 Gas as a Source of Static Lift 111
Swimbladder structure 111
Gas in the swimbladder 113
4.5 The Swimbladder and Vertical Migration 119
4.6 The Swimbladder as a Dynamic Organ: Its Other Functions 121
4.7 Other Sources of Static Lift 122

Envoi 122
References 122
 
 
Chapter 5 - Gas Exchange, Blood, and the Circulatory System
 
5.1 The Origin of Respiratory Gills 126
5.2 Respiration of Fish Larvae 126
5.3 Respiration in Hagfish, and Lampreys 128
Hagfish 128
Lampreys 128
5.4 Gnathostome Fishes 130
Gill design 130
Functional gill area 133
Branchial pumps 136
5.5 Air-breathing Fishes 139
Lungs and gills 139
Lungfishes 143
Estivation 144
5.6 The Circulatory System 145
Primary and secondary circulations 145
The heart 147
White hearts 150
Accessory pumps 151
5.7 Fish Blood and Gas Transport 152
Blood properties 152
Anti-freeze proteins 153
Fish hemoglobins and oxygen transport 155
CO2 transport 156

Envoi 156
References 157
 
 
Chapter 6 - Osmoregulation and Ion Balance
 
6.1 The Osmotic Problem: What Fish Have to Cope With 161
6.2 Hagfish, Lampreys and the Origins of the Glomerular Kidney 163
6.3 Teleosts 166
Marine teleosts 167
Chloride cells in marine teleosts 168
Freshwater teleosts 171
Freshwater lampreys and ammocoetes 173
6.4 The Kidney and Salt Balance 173
Tubular structure and function 176
6.5 Teleosts in Alkaline Saline Lakes 176
6.6 Teleost Eggs and Larvae 177
6.7 Osmoregulation in Chondrichthyes 177
Urea and energy metabolism: a revision 179
Urea and proteins 179
Extrarenal salt excretion and the rectal gland 180
6.8 Freshwater Elasmobranchs 181
6.9 Latimeria 183
6.10 Which is the More Efficient Way of Coping with Life in Seawater: Urea Retention or NaCl Excretion? 183
Plasma ion content and the evolutionary history of different groups of fishes 184

Envoi 184
References 185
 
 
Chapter 7 - Food and Feeding

7.1 Introduction 189
7.2 Techniques for Studying Food Habits and Feeding 191
7.3 Optimal Foraging Theory 192
7.4 Food Choices, Size, and Development 192
7.5 Food Capture 193
7.6 Handling and Ingestion 198
7.7 Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive Systems 204
Teeth 204
The digestive tract 206
Digestive enzymes 209
Other organs 210
7.8 Food Types, Characteristic Adaptations and Feeding Guilds 210
Carnivorous fishes 210
Plankton filterers 211
Large zooplankton filter-feeders 211
Plankton pickers or particle feeders 211
Bottom feeders, detritivores 212
Herbivorous fishes 212
Unusual food types 213

Envoi 213
References 214
 
 
Chapter 8 - Reproduction, and Life Histories
 
8.1 Types of Life History 217
8.2 Fecundity and Egg Size 222
8.3 Maturation 224
8.4 Intersexes, and Unisexual Species 226
8.5 Fertilization to Hatching (Incubation) 229
8.6 Parental Care 231
Ovoviviparity 231
Viviparity 231
Nest building and brooding 232
8.7 Agnatha 232
8.8 Elasmobranchiomorpha and Latimeria 233
Reproduction 233
Ovoviviparity and viviparity 234
Latimeria 236
8.9 Teleosts 236
Freshwater species 239
Marine species 241
8.10 Larval Ecology 245
8.11 Growth 248

Envoi 249
References 250
 
 
Chapter 9 - Endocrine Systems
 
9.1 Why Fish Endocrinology is Important 256
9.2 Hormones and Receptors 256
9.3 The Endocrine Organs of Fishes 258
Origins 259
The brain–gut axis 263
9.4 The Urophysis 263
9.5 The Pituitary 264
The pituitary in hagfish and lampreys 267
The pituitary in elasmobranchomorpha 268
The teleost pituitary 269
Teleost pituitary hormones 270
9.6 The Thyroid 270
9.7 Calcium Homeostasis 272
The ultimobranchial gland 272
The corpuscles of Stannius 273
9.8 The Gastro–Entero–Pancreatic Endocrine System 273
The pancreas 273
Gut hormones 274
9.9 Chromaffin Tissue, and the Interrenals 275
Chromaffin tissue 275
Interrenals 276
9.10 Kidney Hormones, and the Renin–Angiotensin System 276
Hormones from the heart, natriuretic peptides 277
9.11 Gonadal Hormones and the Regulation of Reproduction 278
Elasmobranchs 279
Teleosts 280
9.12 The Pineal 281
9.13 Origin and Evolution of Fish Hormones 281
Origin 282
Changes in function 284

Envoi 284
References 285
 
 
Chapter 10 - Sensory Systems, and Communication

10.1 Proprioception 289
10.2 The Acustico-lateralis System 290
The lateral line 292
The inner ear 296
10.3 Sound Reception 296
10.4 Sound Production 301
10.5 Electroreceptors, and Electric Organs 302
Ampullary (tonic) receptors 303
Tuberous (phasic) receptors 305
10.6 Electric Organs 308
10.7 Magnetic Reception 309
10.8 Vision, and Photophores 310
Optics 312
Accommodation 313
Tubular eyes 315
Aerial vision 316
Reflecting tapeta 316
The receptors 318
10.9 Visual Pigments 320
Color vision 323
Sensitivity, and acuity 325
The pineal body 326
10.10 Camouflage 327
Camouflage by reflection 327
Luminescence, and photophores 328
Bacterial photophores 329
Photophores with intrinsic light production 330
Yellow lenses 332
Red headlight fishes 333
10.11 Taste, Olfaction, and Pheromones 334
The chemoreceptors 335
Olfaction 335
Feeding and chemoreception 336
Reproduction and chemoreception 337
Homing and chemoreception 338
Alarm substance 338

Envoi 339
References 339
 
 
Chapter 11 - The Nervous System

11.1 Glia 348
11.2 Origins 349
11.3 Spinal Cord 350
Spinal nerves 355
Spinal swimming 356
11.4 Cranial Nerves 356
Head segmentation 357
11.5 The Brain 360
Brain size 360
Brain temperature 363
11.6 Elasmobranch Brain Regions and their Connections 363
Telencephalon 364
Diencephalon 365
Mesencephalon 366
Cerebellum 366
Medulla oblongata, brainstem, rhombencephalon 370
11.7 Brains of Other Fishes 371
Telencephalon 371
Mauthner cells 372
The cerebellum in electrolocating teleosts 374
Circuitry of cerebellum-like sensory structures 374
11.8 The Autonomic Nervous System 376

Envoi 379
References 379
 
 
Chapter 12 - The Immune System
 
12.1 Why is Knowledge of the Fish Immune System Important? 386
Effects of disease on aquaculture and capture fisheries 386
The immune system of fish is fascinating from a phylogenetic perspective 387
Study of the immune system of fish can yield valuable insights into the human system 387
The use of organismal health in assessing ecosystem health also relies on knowledge about and use of immune system response 387
12.2 Anatomy of the Fish Immune System 387
Epithelial tissues and mucus 388
Gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) 390
Bone marrow analogs 391
12.3 Major Organs of the Lymphoid System 393
The thymus 393
The kidney 393
The spleen 396
12.4 Cells, and Molecules 396
Cells 396
Molecules 399

Envoi 405
References 405
 
 
Chapter 13 - Behavior and Cognition
 
13.1 Introduction 409
Behavior 409
Cognition 409
13.2 Behavior as a Discipline 411
How is behavior studied? 411
Categorization of investigators 411
Categorization of behavior 412
Learning 416
13.3 Schooling 418
13.4 Orientation, and Migration 422
Vertical migration 422
Horizontal migration 423
13.5 Symbiosis 428

Envoi 433
References 433
 
 
Chapter 14 - Fisheries and Aquaculture

14.1 Introduction 437
14.2 Fish and People 438
14.3 Fish as a Source of Food 439
14.4 World Harvests 440
Productive areas and species 441
14.5 Species 442
Deep-water fisheries 448
14.6 The Fisheries, Economics, and Politics 448
14.7 Aquaculture 449
14.8 Ranching 452
14.9 Management 452
 
Envoi 456
References 456
 

Further Reading 458
Subject Index 459
Systematic Index 469

 

 

 

 



Alle Rechte vorbehalten!

FIBERI - Fisch(erei) Beratung Ritter 2018
Inhalt
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
powered by CMSimple / pimped by FIBERI / best with Waterfox @ Desktop
Thema
Menü



FIBERI - Fisch(erei) Beratung Ritter 2003 - 2018
Nicht-pflicht. Inhalte ohne Gewähr!
Alle Rechte vorbehalten!
fiberi.de