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Developmental Biology of Teleost Fishes (Kunz, 2004)

 

Yvette W. Kunz
Developmental Biology of Teleost Fishes
Fish & Fisheries Series
Springer, 2004

 

 

Ein sehr umfangreiches und eingehendes Werk, das sich mit der Entwicklungsbiologie und speziellen Physiologie der Fischeier und Jungfische beschäftigt!

 

 

 

INHALT:

 

Series Editor’s Preface xiii-xiv
David L. G. Noakes

Preface xv-xvi
Yvette W. Kunz
 

1. Introduction 1
Summary 7
Endnotes 8
 

2. The egg 9

2.1 Types of eggs 10
2.1.1 Pelagic (planktonic) eggs 10
2.1.2 Demersal eggs 12
2.1.3 Demersal/pelagic eggs 13
2.2 Egg care 14
2.2.1 Guarding 14
2.2.2 External bearers 15
2.2.3 Internal bearers (mouthbrooders) 16
2.2.4 Ovoviviparous and viviparous fi sh 16
2.3 Shape of eggs 17
2.4 Number of eggs 18
2.5 Size of eggs 19
2.6 Deposition of eggs 20

Summary 21
Endnotes 21
 

3. Yolk (vitellus) 23
 
3.1 Lipid yolk 24
3.2 Proteid yolk 26
3.3 Yolk formation (vitellogenesis) 27
3.3.1 Genesis of lipid (fatty) yolk 29
3.3.2 Precursors of proteid yolk 30
3.4 Relation between yolk and cytoplasm 36
3.5 Hydration of the oocyte during maturation 38

Summary 39
Endnotes 40
 

4. Cortex and its alveoli 41

4.1 Cortex 41
4.2 Cortical alveoli (CA) and cortical granules 42

Summary 46
Endnotes 47
 

5. Egg envelope 49

5.1 Thickness of envelope 49
5.2 Number of layers in the envelope 50
5.3 Oolemma 51
5.4 Zona radiata (ZR) 52
5.4.1 Structure 52
5.4.2 Ontogeny of radial canals 58
5.4.3 Occlusion or disappearance of radial canals 60
5.4.4 Hardening of the zona radiata 61
5.4.5 Zona radiata externa and interna 62
5.4.6 Variation in number of zona radiata layers 67
5.4.7 Chemical composition of the zona radiata 69
5.4.8 Origin of the zona radiata 70

Summary 75
Endnotes 76
 

6. Accessory structures of egg envelope 77

6.1 Pelagic-nonadhesive 78
6.2 Demersal-nonadhesive 83
6.3 Demersal-adhesive 86
6.4 Special structures for fl oating, attachment etc. 103
6.5 Mouthbrooders (oral incubators) 106
6.6 Ovoviviparous- and viviparous fish (livebearing fish) 107
(dealt with in Chapter 20)

Summary 107
 

7. Micropyle 109

7.1 Types of micropyles 109
7.2 Discovery of the micropyle 110
7.3 The micropyle of Gasterosteidae 111
7.4 The micropyle of Salmonidae 112
7.5 The micropyle of Esocidae 113
7.6 The micropyle of Percidae 114
7.7 The micropyle of other species 114
7.8 Ultrastructure of the micropyle and its surroundings 114
7.9 Formation of the micropyle 124
Summary 129
Endnote 129
 

8. Sperm 131

8.1 Early investigators 131
8.2 EM-analyses 134

Summary 146
Endnotes 146
 

9. Fertilization 147

9.1 Activation 148
9.2 Formation of the perivitelline space 148
9.3 Bipolar differentiation 151
Summary 154
9.4 Motility of sperm 155
9.5 Fertilizing capacity of sperm 157
9.6 Sperm entry through micropyle 158
9.7 Fusion of sperm and egg membranes 159
9.8 Internalization of sperm 161
9.9 Block of polyspermy 162
Summary 166
9.10 Cortical reaction following fertilization 166
9.11 The perivitelline space following fertilization 172
9.12 Hardening of the envelope 175
Summary 176
9.13 Bipolar distribution (ooplasmic segregation)
following fertilization 177
Summary 180
9.14 Formation of pronuclei 180
9.15 Formation of polar bodies 181

Summary 183
Endnotes 183
 

10. Cleavage and formation of periblast 185

10.1 Cleavage 188
10.2 Periblast (YSL) 198
10.2.1 DNA of periblast nuclei 204
10.2.2 Functional signifi cance of the periblast 204

Summary 204
Endnotes 205
 

11. Gastrulation 207

11.1 Epiboly 208
11.2 Involution 214
11.3 Formation of the yolksac (epiboly and involution) 231
11.4 Tailbud 232
11.5 Invagination 233

Summary 234
Endnotes 236
 

12. Neurulation 239

12.1 Early investigators 240
12.1.1 Neural fold 240
12.1.2 Solid CNS 241
12.1.3 Closed neural fold 241
12.2 More recent investigations 244
12.3 Other midline structures 248

Summary 249
Endnotes 250
 

13. Fate-maps 251

13.1 Teleostean fate-maps 251

Summary 257
Endnotes 258
 

14. Kupffer’s vesicle 259

Summary 265
Endnotes 266
 

15. Ectodermal derivatives 267

15.1 Neuroectoderm 267
15.1.1 Brain (encephalon) 268
Summary 270
(a) Epiphysis (glandula pinealis) in the adult 271
(b) Epiphysis in the embryo 272
Summary 274
15.1.2 Neuromast organs 274
Summary 276
15.1.3 Neural crest 276
Summary 276
15.2 Integument 277
15.2.1 EVL or periderm 277
15.2.2 Epidermis 278
(a) Headfold 278
(b) Finfold 278
(c) Chloride cells 280
(d) Pseudobranch 281
(e) Adhesive organs 285

Summary 288
Endnotes 291
 

16. Hatching 293

16.1 Distribution of unicellular hatching glands (UHG) 294
16.2 Histological structure of UHG 295
16.3 Ultrastructure of UHG 296
16.4 Ultrastructural development of UHG 296
16.5 Secretions by UHG and their death by apoptosis 298
16.6 Triggering of UHG secretion 300
16.7 Hatching enzyme 300

Summary 302
Endnotes 302
 

17. Development of the eye 303

17.1 Eye of sexually mature teleost 303
17.1.1 Bruch’s membrane (BM) 311
17.1.2 Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) 311
17.1.3 Photoreceptors (visual cells) 311
(a) Ultrastructure 312
(b) Visual pigments 318
(c) Retinomotor movements (photomechanical changes) 326
(d) Shedding and renewal of photoreceptor outer segments 326
17.1.4 Outer nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer 326
17.1.5 Inner nuclear layer 329
17.1.6 Inner plexiform layer 330
17.1.7 Ganglion cell layer 330
Summary 330
17.2 Cone mosaics in salmonids 332
17.3 Developing teleost eye 337
17.3.1 Eye primordium to optic cup 337
17.3.2 Development of Bruch’s membrane (BM) 339
17.3.3 Development of the retina 339
17.3.4 Developmental sequence in the retina of salmonids and the guppy 341
(a) Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) 341
(b) Visual cell layer (VCL) including outer nuclear layer (ONL) 344
(c) Outer plexiform layer (OPL) of the trout 353
(d) Inner nuclear layer (INL) of the trout 357
(e) Müller cell of the guppy 357
(f) Inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the trout 357
Summary 359
17.3.5 Developmental sequence of the zebrafi sh eye and retina 360
(a) Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) 361
(b) Visual cell layer (VCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) 365
(c) Outer plexiform layer (OPL) 370
(d) Inner nuclear layer (INL) 370
(e) Inner plexiform layer (IPL) 370
(f) Ganglion cell layer (GCL) 371
Summary 371
17.4 Development of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
pattern in the teleost eye 372

Summary 374
Endnotes 375
 

18. Mesodermal derivatives 377

18.1 Kidney 378
Summary 378
18.2 Haematopoietic sites (for red blood cells and vascular endothelia) 381
18.2.1 First haematopoietic sites 382
(a) Surface of the yolk 382
(b) Endocardium 384
(c) Intermediary cell mass (ICM) 385
(d) Blood islands 394
(e) Intermediary cell mass and blood islands 398
(f) Extended blood mesoderm 403
Summary 406
18.2.2 Secondary haematopoietic sites in the embryo (endocardium and kidney) 410
Summary 414
18.3 Erythropoietic stages in the developing pike, Esox lucius 414
18.4 Haemoglobin 415
18.5 Heart 415
18.5.1 Heart of sexually mature teleosts 415
18.5.2 Development of the teleostean heart 415
Summary 420
18.6 Blood circulation 421
18.6.1 Sexually mature fi sh 421
18.6.2 Yolksac circulation 421

Summary 428
Endnotes 428
 

19. Entoderm and its derivatives 431

19.1 Formation of the pharynx 435
19.2 Formation of the thyroid 437
19.3 Formation of the intestine 438
19.4 Postanal gut 439
Summary 441
19.5 Formation of liver 441
Summary 442
19.6 Liver/yolksac contact 442

Summary 452
Endnotes 455
 

20. Viviparity 457

20.1 Matrotrophic species 460
20.2 Lecithotrophic species 493

Summary 502
Endnotes 503
 

21. Synthesis 505

Endnote 510
 

References 511
Species Index 591
Subject Index 603

 



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