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Fish Morphology (Munshi & Dutta, 1996)

Munschi, J.S.D. & Dutta, H.M (Eds.)
Fish Morphology - Horizon of New Research
Science Publ., 1996



Ein Buch mit der kleinen Vorgeschichte, ... daß es sich laut einem hier vorliegenden, da im Buch vergessenen Brief wohl um das originale Rezensions-Exemplar für das Journal of Fish Biology handelt.

Der Verfasser kam damals dort zu folgender Wertung:


For specialists and researchers with a particular interest in the material contained in the various chapters, there is a wealth of detailed information as well as many interesting ideas.  General readers and undergraduates with an interest in fish biology and seeking an overview  of  the  subject  may  find  that  much  of  the  content  is  research  orientated  and explores particular areas of functional morphology in depth and consequently too specific and detailed for their needs.

Journal of Fish Biology Vol. 61, p. 1324, 2002







Acknowledgments (v)
List of contributors (xiii)
An lntroduction to Fish Research (xviii)

1. Transformation Morphology on Structures in the Head of Cichlid Fishes (1)

The Eye of Cichlid Fishes (2)
Morphological Connection of the Eye with Other Functional Components (11)


2. Catfish Morphology: A Reappraisal (21)

Pineal Window and Carotid Labyrinth (25)
Electroreceptors (26)
Pseudobranchial Neurosecretory System (27)


3. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Fish Gill (31)

Gill Anatomy (32)
Pavement cells (33)
Chloride cells (35)
Mucous cells (37)
Pathophysiology and other applications (38)
Gill Vessels (39)
X-Ray Analysis (41)
Conclusion (41)


4. Vascular Organization of Lungfish, a Landmark in Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Air-breathers (47)

Circulation in Lungfish (48)
Structure and control of the ductus arteriosus (49)
Comparison of ductus in lungfish and mammals (51)
Pulmonary artery vasomotor segments (52)
Gill shunts (52)
From morphology to physiology of lungfish circulation (53)
Significance of the Lungfish Model (54)
Ontogeny (54)
Phylogeny (55)
Conclusion (56)


5. Phylogeny, Ontogeny, Structure and Function of Digestive Tract - Appendages (Caeca) in Teleost Fish (59)

Phylogenetic History of Digestive Tract Appendages (60)
Morphological Relationship among Stomach, Caeca and Intestina (63)
Era of Confusion Regarding Teleost Digestive Tract Appendages (66)
Ontogeny of Fish Caeca (66)
Functional Morphology, Grass and Microscopic Anatomy of Caeca (68)
Physiology: Study of Caecal Enzymes and Microorganisms (71)
Environmental Effect (73)


6. The Structure and Function of Fish Liver (77)

Grass Anatomy (78)
Shape (78)
Color (78)
Vascularization (79)
Hepatosomatic index (79)
Sex (80)
Sexual maturation (80)
Feeding (80)
Season and photoperiod (80)
Stress (80)
Light Microscopy (80)
Organization of hepatic parenchyma (80)
Hepatic architecture (81)
Electron Microscopy (83)
Hepatocytes (83)
Sinusoids and their associated cells (84)
lto cells or fat-storing cells (85)
Macrophages and Kupffer cells (85)
Bile canaliculi (85)
Physiological Hepatocyte Polymorphism (85)
Species variability (87)
Age changes (87)
Sex (87)
Temperature (88)
Feeding (88)
Complex relationship (88)
Highlights on Fish Liver Morphology and Suggestions for Further Investigation (88)


7. Ultrastructural Diversity of the Biliary Tract and the Gallbladder in Fish (95)

Morphological lnterrelationship between Liver, the Biliary System, and the Gallbladder: Development and Histology (96)
Agnatha: class Cyclostoma, Myxinidae and Petromyzontidae (96)
Gnatha: class Chondrichtyes, subclass Elasmobranchii (96)
Gnatha: Osteichthyes (96)
Biliary System (97)
Ultrastructural Characteristics and Nomenclature (97)
Gallbladder Ultrastructure (99)
Agnatha: class Cyclostoma (99)
Elasmobranch gallbladders (100)
Osteichthyes gallbladders, class Teleost (101)
Examples of Teleost Gallbladder Ultrastructure (101)
Gallbladder Parasites (103)
Example of gallbladder parasite ultrastructure (105)
Other Peculiar Structures: the "Rodlet Cells" (105)
Effect of Natural and Man-made Toxins on the Liver, Biliary Tract, and Gallbladder of Fishes (106)
Conclusion (106)


8. Recent Advances in the Functional Morphology of Follicular Wall, Egg-Surface Components, and Micropyle in the Fish Ovary (111)

Follicular Epithelium (111)
Morphology and histochemistry (111)
Functions (114)
Protein and lipid synthesis and their transport into the oocyte (114)
Steroid hormone synthesis (116)
Theca and Surface Epithelium (119)
Morphology and histochemistry (119)
Thecal layer (119)
Steroid hormone synthesis (121)
Zona Pellucida (or Chorion) (123)
Structure (123)
Microvilli (123)
Zona material (124)
Origin (126)
Chemistry (128)
Surface Structures of Eggs (130)
Micropyle(s) (133)
Summary (133)


9. Atretic Follicles and Corpora Lutea in the Ovaries of Fishes: Structure-Function Correlations and Significance (147)

Atretic Follicles (147)
Process of atresia: Elasmobranchs (148)
Atresia of previtellogenic follicles: Bony fishes (150)
Atresia of vitellogenic (yolky) follicles (151)
Causes of follicular atresia (152)
Origin of interstitial gland cells (153)
Significance of atresia (154)
Corpora Lutea (155)
Luteogenesis and luteolysis (155)
Elasmobranchs (155)
Steroidogenic potential of corpus luteum (158)
Bony fishes (158)
Steroidogenic potential of corpus luteum (160)
Significance of corpora lutea (161)
Terminology (162)
Conclusions and Future Directions (162)

10. Structure of Fish Locomotory Muscle (169)
Gross Structure (169)
Fine Structure of Muscle (170)
Muscle/fiber types (171)
Fiber differences (173)
Mitochondria (173)
Oxygen diffusion distances (174)
Blood supply (175)
Innervation of Muscle (175)
Conclusion (176)

11 . Morphology of the Swim (Air) Bladder of a Cichlid Teleost: Oreochromis alcalicus grahami (Trewavas, 1983), A Fish Adapted to a Hyperosmotic, Alkaline, and Hypoxic Environment: A Brief Outline of the Structure and Function of the Swimbladder (179)
lntroduction (179)
Materials and Methods (181)
Gross dissection (181)
Latex casting of the gills and the airbladder (181)
Transmission electron microscopy (182)
Scanning electron microscopy (182)
Results (182)
Discussion (184)
Conclusion (188)

12. Cephalic Sensory Canal System of Some Cyprinodont Fishes in Relation to their Habitat (193)
Material and Methods (194)
Observations (195)
Discussion (199)

13. Morphometrics of the Respiratory System of Air-breathing Fishes of India (203)

Methodology and Principles involved in Morphometrics (203)
Gills (203)
Accessory respiratory organs (206)
Types of grids (206)
Measurement of diffusing capacity (207)
Morphological Analysis (210)
Gills (210)
Accessory respiratory organs (212)
Modification of pharyngeal chambers (212)
Modification of branchial chamber (213)
Modification of opercular chambers (216)
Modification of gastrointestinal tract (216)
Modification of swimbladder (216)
Dimensional Analysis (218)
Scaling of gill and its parameters (218)
Juvenile and adult groups (220)
Scaling of air-breathing organs (223)
Considering entire fish group as one (223)
Juvenile and adult groups (224)
Diffusing capacity (225)
Morphometric estimation of oxygen uptake (229)
Future Perspectives in morphometrics (229)
Summary (230)

14. Effects of Gill Dimension on Respiration (235)

Respiration (235)
Gas exchange (235)
Gill dimensions (236)
Basics of mass transfer (238)
Steady supply (238)
Steady state (239)
Diffusion (239)
Diffusivities (240)
Gas Exchange in the Gill (240)
Laminar flow (241)
Boundary layer (242)
Film coefficient (242)
Types of flow (242)
Reynolds number (243)
Transitional flow (244)
Quantification (244)
Flow within tubes (244)
Reynolds analogy (245)
The Gill (245)
Boundary layer analysis (246)
Water velocity (246)
Energy considerations (246)

15. A Composite Approach for Evaluation of the Effects of Pesticides on Fish (249)

Overview (249)
Author's Research (255)
Electrophoresis (255)
Acetylcholinesterase activity (258)
Optomotor behavior (261)
Histopathology (265)
Gills (265)
Liver (266)
Ovary (266)
Electron microscopy study (267)
Scanning electron microscopic study of gills (267)
Treated gill (267)
Transmission electron microscopic study of normal and treated gills 268
Towards a Composite Model (269)


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